Cocoa Farming: Complete guide on the Agricultural Product & Plant Uses

September 30, 2018 Agriculture,Business Ideas,Nigeria

Cocoa Farming is the art of growing cocoa bean seeds for commercial purposes; the seed is sometimes referred to as cacao bean. The cocoa plant, is an Americas tropical rain forest, small in natures and its evergreen. For one thing, it is one of the profitable farming business in Nigeria.

Cocoa farming is a profitable business. It’s seeds are of high demand globally; and it’s finished products are also nourishing. In addition, the cocoa beans are used for products such as chocolate, candy bars, drinks and cocoa powder.

The price of cacao is pretty encouraging at the international market. Up to the present time, the price of cocoa at the international market is £1,541.00 per ton.

For one thing, it is a crop you plant once and you continue to harvest from it year-in-year-out. That is to say, you do not need to plant the crop every time. Additionally, cocoa plant or its beans is one of the most profitable agricultural export product in the world.

Are you looking to start cocoa farming? or what to learn the act of growing Cacao? If so, here are the basic steps with methods to take.

Basic steps on how to start cocoa farming or growing cacao are

  • Get the right seed to plant;
  • Types of cocoa beans to plant;
  • Choose a good cocoa plantation site;
  • Appropriate soil condition for cocoa production;
  • Plant appropriately; and
  • Weeding stage

Without taking to much of your time, let us go through each of the above one after the other.

Basic Steps and Methods on How to Start Cocoa Farming


1. Get the right seed to plant

It is very important to get the right cocoa plant (or bean) when you are starting out. This is simply because it will yield the best results. You will need to consider the location in which you will be planting them.

Cocoa Farming, Cocoa Farming Business, Cocoa Plants, Cocoa Beans

Getting the right set of seeds can be the only difference between a successful cocoa farming business and its failure.

2. Types of Cocoa Seeds:

There are three types of cocoa seeds (or beans) you can plant; and we will look into each one of them. In cocoa farming, it is important to realize that the type of cocoa planted will depend on the location and climate condition of the cocoa plantation.

Nevertheless, here are the different types of cocoa beans for your consideration.

  • Criollo

Criollo Cocoa seed are from the criollo tree which are considered to be difficult to grow because of the environment threats that tends to affect them. In fact, the Criollo plant is more susceptible to fungal disease and other pests; that makes it to produces smaller yields and its fruits are therefore more expensive.

Although, Criollo is considered the finest of the luxury cocoas. Its typically has red or yellow pods, some being green or white. The pods have bumpy or warty skin with pointed tips.

On the other hand, its beans vary from light purple to white in color, and they are also plump and full. In general, the beans from criollo cacao are considered to have a finer flavor than that of other varieties of cacao.

As shown above, the criollo trees are not very disease-resistant (prone to fungal disease and other pests), and hence they are hard for farmers to grow and keep healthy.

  • Forastero

Unlike Criollo, The Forastero Cocoa is the most commonly and widely cultivated type of cocoa in the world; comprising 80-90% of the world production of cocoa.

In general, Forastero is made up of ten distinct genetic groups that have differences in shape, colour, and taste. The likes of Amelonado and Nacional are cultivars that are usually classified as Forastero despite producing beans very different in flavour and shape.

Forastero has typical characteristics that is powerful, less aromatic cocoa flavour that can in some cases be bitter or acidic; and they are the type of cocoa that is commonly found in Ghana, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, New Guinea, Brazil, Central America, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Indonesia.

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